Plug plants

Plug plants are a terrific way of adding variety to your garden without the hassle of raising everything from seed or spending a fortune on full-grown plants.

This year I made the most of a couple of early offers from online plant retailers (in one case, 72 perennial plants for the cost of postage and packing only!), and have been ferociously potting ever since.

Plug plants by post

Small plug plants usually turn up looking something like this:

42 perennial plug plants by post

42 perennial plug plants: Lobelia, Lavender, Coreopsis, Echinacea, Delphinium and Scabious

I was pleased to discover that the plastic packaging was recyclable, and I am reusing the plastic plugs to grow leeks for the veggie plot, thus salving my conscience about all that plastic. It would be great if the growers could find a way to use tiny coir plugs instead though (just saying …)

Make sure you buy from a reputable supplier so that the plants turn up in good condition. They should have a strong root system and at least one or two viable leaves (they are bound to get a bit bashed about in the post).

Well-rooted plug plants

Healthy, well-rooted plug plants

Buy one, get two free

Unpack the plants as soon as they arrive to give them light, and keep the roots moist until you are ready to pot them on (as soon as you can). For plants with incredibly tiny seeds (such as Coreopsis) you often find there is more than one seedling growing in the plug, as the growers dump several seeds into each small pocket of compost.

Bonus buy: 3 in 1 plug. I have teased out as many as 5 individual plants out of these tiny plugs

Bonus buy: 3 in 1. I have teased out up to 5 individual plants from one of these tiny plugs

If you have freakishly small nimble fingers (like me) then you can tease the plugs apart and make even more plants!

Teased out plug plants

Tease out individual plants from each plug, ensuring a good root system on each, to make even more plants

Potting on

Transplant the seedlings into small pots of peat-free multipurpose compost, and within a couple of weeks you will have a small but healthy plant to pot on again.

Pot seedlings into small pots. Place them in good light and keep moist.

Pot seedlings into small pots. Place them in good light and keep them moist.

Gradually work your way up to bigger pots.

Potting on plug plants

Pot on again to a slightly bigger pot

Hardening off

It is best to keep seedlings and small plug plants indoors or in a greenhouse until they are robust enough to harden them off in a cold frame. Remember to take anti-slug and -snail measures once you get them outside!

Before you know it you will have a fabulous collection of young plants ready plug the gaps in your borders, or to fill pots and hanging baskets with summer colour.

From plug plants to perennial collection

From plug plants to perennial collection

Plant of the month – rosemary

With a few days of sunshine (a total of three, I think), generally warmer temperatures (until today) and plenty of rain, this month the garden has at long last burst into life. It’s the end of April and we are finally off and running.

April blooms

Bursting into life … finally!

But which plant has spread the most joy this month? It was a difficult decision.

Cheerful combo

In third place, I have to mention this wonderful Doronicum and Myosotis combo (Leopard’s Bane and Forget-me-not). Each in isolation is far from imposing, but together they cheered up a small corner of my patio and put a smile on my face each time I looked their way.

The cheerful golden daisy-like flowers of Doronicum amid a froth of Forget-me-Nots

The cheerful golden daisy-like flowers of Doronicum amid a froth of Forget-me-Nots

Venetian elegance

Runner-up was this stunning ‘Venetian tulip collection’ from Sarah Raven, which I crammed into pots in early January. With the colours of a sunset, Tulip ‘Prinses Irene’ is superbly complemented by the glossy rich elegance of Tulips ‘National Velvet’ and ‘Havran’. Thank you Sarah – they have brought me much joy on many a grey drizzly April day.

Venetian tulip collection - a very classy combination of colours

Venetian tulip collection – a very classy combination of colours

But the winner is …

… Rosmarinus officinalis, or Rosemary to me and you. Although this woody evergreen perennial herb is better known for its culinary exploits than its prowess in the garden, this year my rosemary is smothered in delightful violet-blue flowers. (Tip: to get your rosemary to flower make sure it is situated in a sunny spot).

Rosemary – deep green needle-covered branches smothered in delicate violet-blue flowers

Rosemary – deep green needle-covered branches smothered in delicate violet-blue flowers

It has taken a few years for it to flower so magnificently, but it has been worth the wait. Not only does it look fantastic, but it is also a magnet for bees. They can’t get enough of it! It is literally buzzing with frenzied bee activity, and for this reason alone it is my plant of the month.

Rosemary grows both upright and trails. Mine is currently sprawling over a path and will need a reshaping prune when it finishes flowering, but until then I am going to enjoy every minute of it.

Rosemary - plant of the month April 2018

Rosemary – my plant of the month April 2018

15 minutes and counting

It was grey, dull and chilly, and I was having one of those days when I didn’t feel like 5 minutes of green, let alone 15. But as I still hadn’t finished all the jobs on my March checklist, let alone started on April’s, I had to find a way to get myself motivated and out there. So I set myself a 15-minute challenge.

Chop raspberry canes to the ground early Spring

Tackling the garden 15 minutes at a time

Could I chop my raspberry canes down to the ground in 15 minutes?

Chopped raspberry canes

Use sharp secateurs to cut autumn-fruit raspberries down to ground level

It turns out I could. In fact, I’d finished chopping in 7 minutes, and had time to spare to weed.

Raspberry canes chopped and weeded in 15 minutes

Chopped and weeded in 15 minutes

Leaving me feeling just a little bit pleased with myself.

#15greenmins of chopping and weeding

#15greenmins of chopping and weeding

With a few natural raspberry cane stakes for use elsewhere in the garden, just for good measure.

Old raspberry canes make great natural stakes in the borders

Old raspberry canes make great natural stakes in the borders

Job done!

Pansy makeover

Remember those winter-flowering pansies and violas you planted back in the autumn? They are probably looking a bit ragged right now. Mine certainly were. But give them a bit of TLC, and these hardy little plants are sure to reward you with a pretty flush of Spring blooms.

Winter-flowering violas are a splash of colour in Spring too

Winter-flowering violas provide a splash of colour in Spring too

I’ve just been giving mine a bit of a makeover. It’s the least I can do, after the exceptionally long spell of frost and snow they’ve just battled through.

My pansies were looking pretty ragged after the harsh winter we've just had

My pansies were looking pretty ragged after the harsh winter we’ve just had

To give your pansies a Spring makeover:

Cut off faded or curled-up blooms at the bottom of the flower stem, just above the first set of leaves

Cut off faded or curled-up blooms at the bottom of the flower stem, just above the first set of leaves

Cut off pansy seed heads

Remove any seed heads that are forming or have formed, cutting them off at the base of the stem

Feed your pansies in Spring

Feed your pansies with a sprinkling of Growmore fertiliser … and watch them flourish

Eventually, the heat of summer (we can but dream!) will stop them blooming, but until then, keep deadheading, watering and feeding your pansies and you won’t be disappointed.

Late fruit tree pruning

The clocks have gone forward and it’s officially Spring, but you’d never know it given the current weather, and neither does my apple or pear tree! Both are in bud but neither has produced any leaves yet, so I figured I could get away with some late ‘winter’ pruning this week.

Apple tree in winter bud

‘Winter’ apple tree – lots of buds but no leaves yet

Conventional wisdom advises pruning when the tree is dormant, between leaf fall and bud burst (late November to early March), so I’m pushing it a bit, but better to do it now than not at all.

5 simple rules for pruning fruit trees

If you’re not used to it, pruning can be a scary concept, especially when you start reading terms such as renewal pruning and spur bearers, so I’ve condensed it down to 5 easy-to-remember rules.

  1. Remove any dead, damaged or diseased branches.
  2. Remove any branches that are crossing or rubbing against each other.
  3. Remove any branches that are heading for the centre of the tree.
  4. Shorten the previous year’s growth on each main branch by about a third.
  5. Remove any young lateral branches that are causing overcrowding.
Remove any crossing or rubbing branches

Remove any crossing or rubbing branches

Use a sharp pruning saw or secateurs and cut just above a bud that is facing in the required direction (ideally you want your tree to keep branching outwards to avoid congestion in the middle).

Above all, prune the tree to the size and shape that fits your garden. It’s no good having a heavy cropping apple tree if it casts a shade over everything else you want to grow. I’ve had to hack a fair bit off my pear tree this year, as it was getting top heavy and leaning over the drive. I probably won’t get as many pears, but people will be able to walk to the front door!

Follow up with a good mulch and wait for that wonderful explosion of blossom. It’s coming …. honest!!

Hidden Hellebores

March may be filled with the sunny glow of the daffodil, but it has a loyal compatriot in the tough, cold-hardy Hellebore. These harbingers of Spring thrive side-by-side in the flower borders around my pond, and together with the early-evening song of a vociferous blackbird, they mark the turning of the season.

A perfect combo – hellebores and daffodils

A perfect combo – Hellebores and daffodils

Hellebores have a demure charm, with gently nodding heads that hide their true glory. But the blooms can become hidden among the large saw-toothed leathery leaves, which turn an unsightly crispy brown as they age. 

Remove old leaves from Hellebores to reveal the blooms

Old leaves on Hellebores turn brown and crispy as they age

Remove old leaves

So remove the old leaves now, if you haven’t done so already. This will give pollinators better access to the flower heads and reduce the likelihood of Hellebore leaf spot, a fungal disease that pock marks the flowers with black spots.

Hellebore leaf spot is caused by the fungus Microsphaeropsis hellebori

Hellebore leaf spot is caused by the fungus Microsphaeropsis hellebori

If, like me, you already have this problem on some of your plants, then the only solution is to remove and destroy all the infected leaves and blooms (there is no chemical solution). If you leave infected material around the plant, it will be a source of repeat infection next year.

So give your Hellebores a tidy up early in the season (it’s an easy #15greenmins job) and enjoy their magnificence.

The glory of Hellebores revealed

The glory of Hellebores revealed

Hellebores favour a humous-rich soil in shade or part-shade with good drainage, but I’ve found they flourish in full sun as well. With hundreds to choose from, including double blooms and freckled varieties, if you don’t have a Hellebore in your garden yet, get one! I guarantee you’ll be hooked.

Hungry hedgehogs

Ironic that it was Hedgehog Awareness Week last week, because here in our small back garden in Hampshire we have been becoming increasingly hedgehog aware. It started as a bit of a mystery. Every morning we would find the cage on top of our bird ground feeder knocked askew, and the remains of the birds’ mealworms and suet devoured. A ratty visitor perhaps?

Who’s poo?

But then, more distinct telltale signs: shiny black droppings, not just one or two, but tens of poops around the lawn. Most of the literature on hedgehogs states that their stools are distinctly cylindrical, sometimes slightly tapered at one end and about 5cm in length, but I can confirm that hedgehog poop comes in all shapes and sizes, and in vast quantities.

Hedgehog poop – shiny, black, generally cylindrical ... and lots of it!

Hedgehog poop – shiny, black, generally cylindrical … and lots of it!

In the flesh

And then we finally caught the culprit in the act. Instantly recognisable – short tail, long legs, small ears, pointed furry face, small black eyes … a lot of spines … and terrible table manners! Those of you who follow this blog will know that our last sighting of a hedgehog was back in the summer of 2015 (see Huffing Hedgehogs), so you can imagine our excitement.

Hedgehog in garden

Instantly recognizable

We immediately got down to the serious business of leaving the right food out.

Feeding hedgehogs

Hedgehogs are omnivores but over 70% of their natural diet comprises beetles and other insects, worms and a tiny number of slugs and snails. You can supplement their evening dinner with:

  • Meat-flavoured tinned cat or dog food (chicken in jelly is the best – no fish flavours or meat in gravy!)
  • Specific tinned or dry hedgehog food, available from garden centres and pet shops
  • Cat biscuits (but not fish flavoured)
  • Cooked meat leftovers – chopped up finely as they have tiny teeth and cannot chew or tear big pieces
  • Chopped or crushed peanuts (the sort you put out for the birds – not salted!), dried mealworms and sunflower hearts (not whole sunflower seeds)
  • Sultanas and raisins

And if the guzzling in our back garden is anything to go by, they will appreciate it!

Do not give them:

  • Bread or milk – they can’t digest them!
  • Salty meats such as bacon or corned beef

And make sure you provide:

  • Water – they drink a lot!
  • A sloping exit out of ponds so they can get out if they fall in.

Lawn of many hedgehogs

So, for the past 4 weeks we have been putting the food direct onto the lawn after dark between 9 and 10pm, when there are fewer marauding moggies around to sneak a crafty snack. This seems to have encouraged more hedgehog visitors to the garden, and as they are not territorial they seem to be content to share the food without too much squabbling. In fact, we have now seen up to four hedgehogs together at any one time on the lawn.

 

Hedgehogs feeding

Erinaceus europaeus – three caught on camera – enjoying the buffet

Even if they are not around on the lawn, then we can usually hear them through the night, either huffing at each other in our herbaceous borders or in our neighbour’s garden. Yes, the courting rituals have started (hedgehog breeding season is April through to September) and we have our fingers crossed for hoglets later this summer.

Look after your hedgehogs

Hedgehog numbers in the UK are continuing to decline. According to the People’s Trust for Endangered Species (PTES) 1 in 3 of all British hedgehogs have been lost since the year 2000. They are on the endangered species list, so if you find them in your garden, look after them!

For more information on hedgehogs go to The British Hedgehog Preservation SocietyThe Mammal SocietyPrickles Hedgehog Rescue or Tiggywinkles Wildlife Hospital.

Do you have hedgehogs in your garden? I’d love to hear from you. Leave a comment below or let me know on Twitter @15greenmins

Chop, shred, mulch!

 

It’s good to leave the ‘skeletons’ of some herbaceous plants standing over winter. The natural scaffolding and seed heads of Sedum spectabile (ice plant), Eryngium (sea holly) and ornamental grasses help to protect the tender crowns from the sharpest frosts, provide a cosy home for insects and add general winter interest to the garden.

Winter Sedum heads

The seed heads of Sedum spectabile provided great winter interest in the garden

But now that things are warming up, it’s time to remove last year’s debris and let fresh green leafiness take free reign once more.

Get chopping (or pulling)

If you haven’t done so already, don’t delay, get chopping! Secateurs work best for most herbaceous perennials. Cut as close to the crown as you can, cutting at an angle to prevent water collecting inside and rotting the crown, or cut just above any fresh new growth.

In fact, at this time of year, you’ll be able to simply pull some of the hollow dead stems out from the base of the plant without cutting at all.

The joy of shredding

Remove any diseased material, but don’t throw the rest. It’s fabulous organic material that can be put back to use around the garden.

Bag of shredding material

After three 15-minute sessions I had a huge bag of shreddable material

Ideally, shred it. Most domestic shredders will cope with woody stems less than 3–4 cm (1¼-1½ inches) in diameter. I shredded the above bagful of woody material last weekend. The shredder made a hell of a racket (for which I profusely apologise to my neighbours), but within 15 minutes I had reduced one large bag of winter debris to a bucketful of useful chippings; wonderful ‘brown’ material for the compost bin, or a fabulous mulch for the borders.

15 minutes of shredding produced a bucketful of compostable organic material

15 minutes of shredding produced a bucketful of compostable organic material

If you don’t have a shredder, then simply cut up what you can into bitesize pieces. It all helps!

I add all my ‘shreddings’ to the compost bin. Alongside all the kitchen waste, it makes great compost.

A barrowful of homemade compost - great for spring mulching

A barrowful of homemade compost – great for spring mulching

Marvellous mulch

Which brings me to the last of this trio of spring jobs: ‘tis the season to get mulching! According to Monty Don (my husband has been hearing that phrase a lot lately):, mulching is “probably the best single investment of time and money that anyone could put into their garden”* for 3 reasons:

1. Mulching reduces weeds.

2. Mulching retains moisture.

3. Mulching improves the structure of your soil.

Oh, and it makes the garden look tidier too! What’s not to like about mulch? (I love the word ‘mulch’!)

To be honest, until this year my mulching has been rather sporadic, mainly because I only have 2 smallish compost bins and have never produced enough material to get around all the borders. But this year, I went the whole hog and ordered 900 litres of soil conditioner, which I’m currently spreading around my garden with wild abandon.

A mulched flower bed

A mulched border – weed free, water retentive, and the earthworms will be happy too

My garden has been giving me so much pleasure for so many years that I felt like it deserved a treat (and there was a special offer on at B&Q), especially as I have heavy clay soil that needs all the help it can get.

Try to do as much work in your borders as you can before you mulch (weeding, dividing perennials etc.) so that you disturb them as little as possible afterwards. Then pile the mulch on the soil surface and around the bases of your plants to about 2 inches thick, taking care not to smother the crowns. The earthworms will do the rest.

Pile the mulch around your herbaceous plants, up to 2 inches think and up to the bases

Pile the mulch around your herbaceous plants, up to 2 inches thick and up to the bases

Finding the time

It sounds a lot of work, but 15 minutes of cutting, shredding or mulching at a time and you’ll soon have it done. And when you’re sitting back with a glass of wine in the evening sunshine (hmm, we can but hope!), you’ll be glad you did it, 15 minutes of green at a time.

Spring garden

After all that mulching, find the time to enjoy your spring garden

Let me know whether you mulch your garden, and what with.

*https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2006/mar/05/gardens

On your marks …

… get set, grow! This month is when I start to get back out in the garden and scare myself silly at how much there is to do. Yes, it’s that time of year when everything starts to get going again – the spring bulbs, the perennials, the weeds!

Tete-a-tete narcissus

The emergence of tete-a-tete narcissi tells me its time to get gardening again

It’s all crying out for a tidy up. Now is the time to cut back the remnants of winter growth, stop the weeds in their tracks and start sowing for the year ahead.

But there’s only so much I can do at any one time, so rather than go with my first impulse – all out panic! – I remind myself of the 15 minutes of green philosophy. I can do anything for 15 minutes, and with 15 minutes of green every day (plus a few 15+ sessions when time allows) I will coax my garden back to splendour.

Spring border in desperate need of a tidy up

Desperately seeking a tidy up

I started on what I call my perennial border; basically, the border that gives me the most grief but can also bring the most joy. I removed the dead leaves and stalks from the sedums, day lilies and anemones, dug out as much of the ground elder as I could, which creeps in from under the hawthorn hedge, and added a few bucketfuls of garden compost and leaf mould.

Tidy herbaceous border

What a transformation, and oh so very satisfying 🙂

It looks a bit bare at the moment, but I’m always amazed how quickly it fills in once the perennials get growing. So that’s one good job done!

That just leaves the raspberry canes to chop down, the herb bed to tidy, the vegetable beds to hoe, the fruit trees to top dress, the seeds to sow, the ……. deep breath! 15 minutes at a time, remember.

To help me (and maybe you too), I’ve made a checklist for March and used the 15 minutes of green logo to indicate which of the jobs can be done 15 minutes at at time. Check out the #15greenmins tab at the top of the page and click on March for more information and a checklist that you can print out.

It’s time to get out and grow, 15 minutes at a time!

Memories of May

As Rodgers and Hammerstein so succinctly put it, “June is bustin’ out all over”. Indeed, much of the garden is now a dazzling display of glorious technicolour. But this month has a lot to live up to. Let’s not forget the slightly more subtle splendours of May. Here are my highlights, re-lived in pictures.

Garden, early May

My garden in early May

Delicate tree blossom …

Apple tree blossom

A young apple tree smothered in delicate pink blossom, hinting at the abundant autumnal harvest to follow

Hawthorn tree covered in blossom

The only large tree in the garden, a mature hawthorn, smothered in frothy white blossom

Blue tit in hawthorn tree

Nesting blue tits made the most of an abundance of insects amongst the milky white petals

The last of the Spring bulbs …

Red tulips

Guaranteed to make an impact: vibrant red tulips

Bluebell

Rather less showy, but no less resplendent, bluebells added a touch of quietly under-stated class

New growth in shady areas …

Emerging hosta

Down at the shady end of the garden, hostas started sprouting …

Unfolding fern

… and ferns unfolded

The attractive early foliage of shrubs …

Pieris Forest Flame

The spirited new growth of Pieris ‘Forest Flame’ escaped the frosts this year

Cotinus smoke tree

The first leaves of this Cotinus ‘smoke tree’ glowed like embers in the Spring sunshine

In the vegetable garden …

Chives in flower

The chives were starting to bloom in the herb bed

Strawberry flowers

And there were signs of sweet things to come in the strawberry patch

In the pond …

Spring proliferation of lily pads

A proliferation of lily pads across the surface sheltered the fish from the attentions of a visiting heron

And last but by no means least, the Spring-flowering perennials …

Centaurea montana

Clumps of Centaurea montana (Great blue-bottle) were the first to emerge

Early perennials - lupin and geranium

Swiftly followed by glorious spires of lupins and ebullient mounds of Johnson’s Blue geraniums

Aquilegia

Up popped the self-seeding aquilegia, usually at the base of another perennial(!), but they were forgiven when their nodding granny bonnets began to emerge

Foxglove

And my absolute favourite, towering over the other border plants, a fanfare of trumpeting foxgloves to take us into June

Spud update

Last time I mentioned the potatoes, they were merrily chitting on a bedroom window sill.

Chitted potatoes, ready to plant

Chitted and ready to plant

A lot has happened since then. First, I had to decide where to put them. If, like me, you are pretty limited on space, the perfect solution is to plant in sacks or containers. I’ve just about managed to squeeze mine in behind the raised vegetable beds.

A chorus line of potato sacks

A chorus line of potato sacks

I filled my sacks about a third full of compost, along with some ‘potato fertilizer’, and placed the chitted potatoes on the top (about 5 per sack), then covered them with more compost and watered them well.

Five seed potatoes per sack

Five seed potatoes per sack

Since then, I’ve pretty much left them to their own devices, and they have done their thing extremely quietly and quickly. Before I knew it (and partly because I’d been away) the leaves were poking out of the tops of the sacks.

Potato sacks in leaf

Sackfuls of … leaves

Not what I had intended! The plan had been to gradually earth up soil around the stems as they grew. Instead, I have now had to shovel a load more compost into the bags and hope I haven’t got a potato disaster on my hands.

So now it’s just a waiting game. I shall keep them damp (not wet!) and await the flowers; then we’ll see if there’s anything to harvest.

The Great Garden Sowing Marathon

Move over the Great Chelsea Garden Challenge (as seen on TV), it’s time to make room for the great garden sowing marathon (as seen in my garden recently). Having gone a bit nuts on the seed buying earlier this year, I now realize that I may have bitten off a little more than I can chew.

My post on ‘Seedy decisions’ earlier this year gives a full list of the vegetables I’m aiming to grow, and as foolhardy as it may be, I’ve stuck to the plan. In addition to all those vegetables, I’ve sown a fair few seed trays with complementary flowers such as marigolds and nasturtiums, plus salvia, cosmos, rudbeckia and gaillardia to fill in any gaps. GAPS? I could do with another garden to fit it all in!

I don’t have room for a large greenhouse, and my little put-me-up is full.

No room in the greenhouse

No room in the greenhouse

So, the question of where to put all the seed trays and pots has been a bit of a challenge. Fortunately, I have a very understanding husband, who doesn’t mind a kitchen floor full of seed trays (for a short while at least)!

Seed trays on the kitchen floor

Seed trays on the kitchen floor by the door …

Cucumbers by the radiator

… and by the radiator

I never quite believe that anything is going to happen when I sow seeds, and I’m always delighted when the pots and trays start to show signs of life. I collected the marigold seeds myself last year, so I was particularly delighted when they started to germinate after just 3 days.

Germination success

Germination success

And these are just the seeds I’ve started indoors. I’ve sown beetroot, leeks and spinach outside, with more to follow. Safe to say, I’m going to be ‘blooming’ busy for the next few weeks!

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